By David G. Andrews
A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This variation has been introduced thoroughly up to date, and now encompasses a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in previous chapters, giving the scholar a large knowing of a few of the actual techniques underlying this most crucial and topical topic. unlike many different books on atmospheric technological know-how, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are constructed mostly within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The ebook is a necessary source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technological know-how, meteorology, physics, Earth technological know-how, planetary technological know-how, or utilized arithmetic direction.
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Additional info for An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics, Second Edition
8. 1 hPa. 09Vl (unlike most substances, water expands on freezing) and the speciﬁc volume of water vapour is Vv ≈ 2 × 105 Vl . 35) of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation applies to each of these Vi and the latent heat of sublimation (ice–vapour) is approximately transitions. 38); indeed, since the two latent heats are fairly similar in size, the two curves are quite close. 37 The saturated adiabatic lapse rate Fig. 8 The phase transitions between ice, liquid water and water vapour. The triple point is indicated by the small solid circle.
15 Show that the temperature Ti at the surface of a spherical ice crystal of mass Mi growing in a cloud of water droplets at temperature T is given by Ti − T = ˙i Ls M , 4π λ r ˙ i is the rate of the increase in where Ls is the speciﬁc latent heat of sublimation of ice, M mass, r is the radius and λ is the thermal conductivity of the air.
We can integrate the last expression in this equation by parts to get p=p0 p=0 EP = zp + ∞ p dz. z0 Now assuming that zp → 0 as z → ∞ and p → 0,5 we get EP = ∞ p dz + E0 , E0 = z0 p0 . 33) z0 The boundary term E0 = 0 if the surface elevation z0 = 0, but in general we must allow for topography of varying height over the Earth’s surface, with z0 = 0. We now consider the internal energy of the air in the column. 2) has been used. 33). 34), ET = EP + EI = ∞ cv + Ra Ra p dz + E0 = z0 1 κ ∞ p dz + E0 , z0 since cv + Ra = cp = Ra /κ.