By G. Hauke
This ebook provides the rules of fluid mechanics and delivery phenomena in a concise method. it really is appropriate as an creation to the topic because it includes many examples, proposed difficulties and a bankruptcy for self-evaluation.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Fluid Mechanics and Transport Phenomena
8. The plume of a chimney is a streakline. Streamlines indicate the velocity direction. They can be visualized by implanting little ﬂags inside the ﬂuid and observing their orientation. The streamlines can be obtained by drawing lines tangent to the ﬂags. They are a rather mathematical object. The trajectory is the path followed by a ﬂuid particle. For example, the braking marks on a road indicate the position that a tire has been occupying while the wheel was being dragged. They depict, therefore, the trajectory of the tire.
9) The last step was given taking into account that the relative velocity v of the ﬂuid particles with respect to the reference system is zero. 6), ∇p = ρf m Next we will cover examples on hydrostatics, manometry and forces on submerged structures. 2 Applications 49 P atm z g x Fig. 1. Hydrostatics. Axes. 1 Hydrostatics Hydrostatics is the part of ﬂuid statics dedicated to incompressible ﬂuids. Let us calculate the pressure distribution in a liquid at rest. Take the coordinate axes of Fig. 1, where z is the upward vertical axis.
2. The opposite convention for i and j is equally found. This has no practical implication since, as shown below, the stress tensor is symmetric. 3 (Normal stress). e. τ11 , τ22 and τ33 . 4 (Shear or tangential stress). e. τ12 , τ13 , τ21 , τ23 , τ31 and τ32 . 3. In Cartesian coordinates, the components of the stress tensor are also denoted by τxx , τyy , τzz , τxy , τxz , and τyz . 3 D fs τ 12 n τ 21 τ 22 τ 23 τ 11 τ 13 P τ 31 C 2 τ 32 τ 33 B 1 Fig. 3. Inﬁnitesimal tetrahedron employed to obtain the stress tensor at the point P.