Download Athens by James H. S. McGregor PDF

By James H. S. McGregor

ISBN-10: 0674047729

ISBN-13: 9780674047723

Revered because the birthplace of Western suggestion and democracy, Athens is way greater than an open-air museum packed with crumbling monuments to old glory. Athens takes readers on a trip from the classical city-state to modern modern capital, revealing a world-famous city that has been resurrected and redefined time and again.

Although the Acropolis is still the city's anchor, Athens' shiny tradition extends some distance past the Greek city's vintage limitations. James H. S. McGregor issues out how the cityscape preserves indicators of the various actors who've crossed its ancient level. Alexander the good included Athens into his empire, as did the Romans. Byzantine Christians repurposed Greek temples, the Parthenon incorporated, into church buildings. From the 13th to 15th centuries, the city's language replaced from French to Spanish to Italian, as Crusaders and adventurers from diverse components of Western Europe took turns sacking and administering town. An Islamic Athens took root following the Ottoman conquest of 1456 and remained in position for almost 400 years, till Greek patriots eventually gained independence in a blood-drenched revolution.

Since then, Athenians have persevered many hardships, from Nazi career and army coups to famine and financial problem. but, as McGregor indicates, the historical past of Athens is in the direction of a heroic epic than a Greek tragedy. Richly supplemented with maps and illustrations, Athens paints a portrait of 1 of the world's nice towns, designed for tourists in addition to armchair scholars of city history.

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The eastern room in the interior of the Parthenon was about twice as big as the room for worship and treasure. Like the smaller room, this one also had interior columns. The columns stood in two superimposed ranks all around the room. They served little purpose except to isolate and frame the center of the long room, which housed a colossal and immensely valuable image of the goddess Athena. Some scholars have imagined that there was an opening in the roof of the Parthenon to let in light that would illuminate the sculpture.

She wore a helmet with a high central crest and ornaments to either side. According to Pausanias, who saw the statue in the first century ce, the images on the helmet represented two mythical beasts. The central image was a sphinx—half woman, half lion— flanked by griffins, which are composites of lions and eagles. A small replica of the Athena Parthenos in the New Acropolis Museum has griffi ns on the cheek pieces of the helmet and winged horses on either side of the sphinx. These mythical beasts, like the Gorgon on her aegis, are expressions of the The Acropolis in the Fifth Century 45 goddess’s dominance.

The par ticular 18 at h e n s Mount Lykabettos rises high above the surrounding blocks. limestone of the Acropolis is a light blue-gray, and it is relatively hard, which has slowed its erosion and altogether prevented the wearing away of softer rock layers beneath it. This durable elevated platform has served the city in two widely recognized ways over its long history. During the thirteenth century bce, the limestone mesa was home to a leading, if not ruling, family. Near the end of the era when the Greek city-state Mycenae dominated the Greek peninsula and much of the Eastern Mediterranean, sometime around 1250 bce, their palatial residence was shielded by a massive wall.

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