By E. J. Bowlby
During this vintage paintings of psychology John Bowlby examines the approaches that ensue in attachment and separation and exhibits how experimental stories of kids supply us with a recognizable behaviour trend that is proven by means of discoveries within the organic sciences.
He makes transparent that human attachment is an instinctive reaction to the necessity for defense opposed to predators, and one as vital for survival as meals and copy.
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Extra resources for Attachment (Attachment and Loss, Volume 1)
But in the course ofhis perception ofanother, a momentary state of confusion between self and other exists. We might therefore consider the behaviour of the monkeys not only in the context of stimulusresponse learning but also from the point of view of an automatic primary identification (to use Freud’s term) or adualism (to use Piaget’s); and the influence of the momentary confusion between self and object representations must be considerable, An enormous amount oflearning must happen when boundaries are still incompletely defined.
At the other extreme, some persons seem to sag under ordinary life experiences, presumably due to severe weakness in the coping capacity, as in some simple schizophrenics. The issue is complicated by the fact that usually neither stress nor handicap can be defined independently of each other, and in any particular case the balance between them may largely depend on the meanings of both to the patient, which, in turn, depend on his previous life experience. Since the forms of psychotherapy that I shall consider involve an interpersonal transaction, presumably they are suitable only for those failures in adaptation in which distortions ofthe patient’s perception and behaviour, resulting from his experiences with significant persons, play a major role.
I assumed that the drop was caused by habituation of the fear response: no DISCUSSION 31 harmful consequences occurred if the animal did not show fear to a threatening picture. But the worst thing for the animal is that he is probably learning a maladaptive habit. He shows fear and withdrawal when a picture of a monkey threatens, but nothing happens so he discontinues this behaviour. When he goes out into the “real” world of playroom and laboratory he finds that if he shows no fear in response to threatening from a real animal, he is attacked.