By Daniel J. Klionsky
Klionsky (life sciences, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor) defines "autophagy" as "a strategy during which the mobilephone usually undergoes membrane rearrangement to sequester a element of cytoplasm, convey it to a degradative organelle and recycle the macromolecular elements. He argues that, within the conventional view of organelles as mobile rubbish disposals, the continued force towards homeostatis among mobile loss of life and synthesis has been neglected. His creation additionally lists the hot nomenclature for 27 autophagy-related genes. In 22 different chapters, overseas members evaluation autophagy in organisms from yeast to people and its roles in metabolism, getting older, melanoma and neuromuscular illnesses. a few photos are in colour.
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Additional info for Autophagy
Ruud Larsen A-K, Møller MTN, Blankson H et al. Naringin-sensitive phosphorylation of plectin, a cytoskeletal crosslinking protein, in isolated rat hepatocytes. J Biol Chem 2002; 277:34826-34835. 57. Blankson H, Grotterød EM, Seglen PO. Prevention of toxin-induced cytoskeletal disruption and apoptotic liver cell death by the grapefruit flavonoid, naringin. Cell Death Differ 2000; 7:739-746. 58. Doherty FJ, Wassell JA, Mayer RJ. A putative protein-sequestration site involving intermediate filaments for protein degradation by autophagy.
Phagophores in the process of engulfing cytoplasm could be found in both preparations, although they are a rare occurrence among the purifed autophagosomes. Bar length, 150 nm (A,B) or 250 nm (C,D). B-D, modified from refs. 6 and 4. tophagy is a constitutive rather than an inducible process, regulated on a short-term basis by changes in activity. , in the absence of new protein synthesis,11,42,43 a pool of preformed phagophores, or phagophore protein, would seem to be present in the cell. The fact that autophagy can go on for hours without protein synthesis,42,43 despite the rapid turnover (~10-min half-life) of autophagosomes,44 would suggest that the pool of phagophore protein is rather large, or that phagophores/proteins are extensively reutilized.
Because this topic is discussed in chapter 2, we will confine ourselves to some general remarks. 14 Recent data suggest that the mobilization of membrane pools from the endoplasmic reticulum15 and Golgi/post Golgi16,17 can contribute to the formation of the autophagosome. This would agree with the original nature of the phagophore and also conciliates the different origins reported in the literature for the autophagosomal membrane. 19,20 Regulation of Autophagy by Amino Acids Because amino acids are the end products of autophagic protein degradation, it is not surprising that they are effective inhibitors of the process.